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Joule-Lenz Law

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Quantum Aspects of the Joule Lenz Law

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Quantum Aspects of the Joule Lenz Law

Quantum aspects of the JouleLenz law for the dissipation energy have been studied. In the first step, in an analysis of the energy-time principle of uncertainty, this gives a lower limit of the time interval and an upper limit of the energy interval which can be admitted in a quantum transition process. Moreover, for the low energy excitations, the transition time between the levels is found to be close to the oscillation time periods characteristic for these levels. A reference obtained among the transition time ∆t, transition energy ∆E and the Planck constant h indicates that ∆t should approach approximately the time period of the electromagnetic wave produced in course of the transition.

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Electrodynamics of the Joule Lenz Law Applied to the Energy Emission Done by a Free Electron or Harmonically Oscillating Microparticle

Electrodynamics of the Joule Lenz Law Applied to the Energy Emission Done by a Free Electron or Harmonically Oscillating Microparticle

A semiclassical examination of properties of the emission intensity has been done, first, for the energy quanta of a free-electron particle enclosed in a linear potential box, next for the spectrum of a harmonic oscillator. Different separa- tions between the beginning and end quantum levels involved in the emission process are taken into account. The calculations have been performed on the ba- sis of a semiclassical JouleLenz law adapted to examination of the quantum sys- tems.

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The de Broglie Waves and Joule Lenz Law Applied in Examining the Electron Transitions in Small Quantum Systems

The de Broglie Waves and Joule Lenz Law Applied in Examining the Electron Transitions in Small Quantum Systems

Another feature of the probabilistic Einstein theory was the assumption that a large, though rather undefined, number of the quantum objects should enter a given transition. This difficulty seems to be not involved in the Planck’s ap- proach where the number of the states which participate in transition can be de- finited and not necessarily large. This property allows us to consider also transi- tions in which the number of participating objects is relatively small. Moreover, when the JouleLenz classical approach [3] is applied on the quantum footing [4], the intensity of the energy emission can be estimated for a transition of a single particle without any reference to the probabilistic theory.

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Time of the Energy Emission in the Hydrogen Atom and Its Electrodynamical Background

Time of the Energy Emission in the Hydrogen Atom and Its Electrodynamical Background

In the first step, we assumed that the classical JouleLenz theory can couple the amount of energy emitted in the quantum process of an electron transition with the time necessary for that process. This assumption led to an extremely simple relation between the emitted energy ΔE and emission time Δt. In the present paper our aim was to approach the time necessary for the emission of ΔE on a somewhat different way than a direct application of the JouleLenz law, i.e. mainly with the aid of a classical analysis of the electric current produced as an effect of transition giving the energy change ΔE.

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Computations of Scattering Cross Sections for He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe and Rn

Computations of Scattering Cross Sections for He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe and Rn

Computed Total Cross-Sections (TCS) of elastic electron-atom scattering for the elements He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe and Rn are presented. The TCS were calculated using the partial wave, Eikonal, Born, and the optical theorem approximation methods with the Lenz-Jensen potential, at incident energies of 1to1000 eV. Results obtained using the partial wave, Eikonal and optical theorem methods are in good agreement with the experimental TCS values.

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Discovery of delta Scuti Pulsations in the Young Hybrid Debris Disk Star HD 156623

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Discovery of delta Scuti Pulsations in the Young Hybrid Debris Disk Star HD 156623

pulsations. All four bRing cameras had reported a total of ∼ 12,500 data points between 2017 June 1 and the download date of 2018 May 28. The tool used to extract the frequencies was the literature standard Period04 software ( Lenz & Breger 2005 ) . The Period04 analysis was performed on the composite light curve and the four individual camera light curves of HD 156623. The pre-whitening residual noise in the Fourier spectrum from Period04 for the composite light curve was ∼ 0.2 mmag. Periods were searched for down to S / N = 4 ( Kuschnig et al. 1997 ) , which corresponded well with visual inspection of the Fourier spectrum revealing no more signi fi cant periods. The detected frequencies were entered into a spreadsheet for selection, analysis, and discussion ( Section 4.2 ) .

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16O(n,α) cross section investigation using LENZ instrument at LANSCE

16O(n,α) cross section investigation using LENZ instrument at LANSCE

applications. The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) produces a white neutron spectrum ranging from thermal to several hundreds of MeV energies. We have recently developed the LENZ (Low Energy NZ-neutron induced charged particle detec- tion) capability to measure high-precision (n,α) cross sections. In order to provide more reliable data, we have enhanced solid angle coverage, and improved signal-to-noise ratios and time-of-flight resolution by implementing digitizer waveform analysis. The LENZ was commissioned by studying the 59 Co(n,α) reaction with neutron beams in early 2015.

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Model tests of wind turbine with a vertical axis of rotation type Lenz 2

Model tests of wind turbine with a vertical axis of rotation type Lenz 2

All wind turbines type VAWT were inspired by two basic types: Savonius’a and Darrieus’a. In 2007, was published an article of a wind turbine with greater efficiency of approx. 40% compare to ones above. This turbine was invented by Ed Lenz. The project introduced a lot of innovation, for example he combined Darrieus turbine working on the aerodynamic lift force and Savonius turbine relying on the drag (see Fig 5).

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Existence and uniqueness for the nonstationary problem of the electrical heating of a conductor due to the Joule Thomson effect

Existence and uniqueness for the nonstationary problem of the electrical heating of a conductor due to the Joule Thomson effect

CIMATTI, G., Existence of weak solutions for the nonstationary problem of the Joule heating of a conductor, Ann.. Pura Appl., To appear.[r]

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All's fair in sport and competition? The application of EC competition rules to sport

All’s fair in sport and competition? The application of EC competition rules to sport

the Treaty the person engaging in the activity governed by that rule or the body which has laid it down”. 43 In other words, a sporting case can involve both economic and non-economic aspects and the non-economic elements do not (always) suffice to remove the case from the scope of Community law. Moreover, “If the sporting activity in question falls within the scope of the Treaty, the conditions for engaging in it are then subject to all the obligations which result from the various provisions of the Treaty. It follows that the rules which govern that activity must satisfy the requirements of those provisions, which, in particular, seek to ensure freedom of movement for workers, freedom of establishment, freedom to provide services, or competition”. 44 Thereupon, the Court of Justice ruled that the Court of First Instance made an error of law by holding that rules could automatically be excluded from the scope of EC competition law (Articles 81 and 82 EC Treaty) on the sole ground that they were regarded as purely sporting with regard to the application of the free movement provisions, without any need to determine first whether the rules fulfilled the specific requirements of Articles 81 and 82 EC. 45 When an activity must be assessed under EC competition law, it will be necessary to determine whether the rules which govern that activity emanate from an undertaking, whether the latter restricts competition or abuses its dominant position, and whether that restriction or that abuse affects trade between Member States. 46 It is unclear whether the Court’s statement should be interpreted as a general rejection of the trend towards convergence – to a certain extent – that some authors see between the provisions on free movement and the competitions rules. 47 The Court does not elaborate on this, but it seems apparent that the Court of Justice firmly criticized the half-hearted analysis of the Court of First Instance, rather than turning down the convergence theory. 48 The latter would need further confirmation by the Court of Justice. As Weatherill convincingly advocates, with regard to the application of EC principles to sport, it seems appropriate to plea for a “convergence in outcome”. 49 What is or is not acceptable under free movement

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Perturbation of Hydrogen Degenerate Levels and SO(4)

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Perturbation of Hydrogen Degenerate Levels and SO(4)

degenerate. This fact was re- lated, since Pauli’s paper, to the presence of an extra conserved vector quantity, which in classical mechanics is known as the Laplace-Runge-Lenz vector and was used by Pauli in the calculation of the spectrum. This should be considered as the first example of dynamical symmetry in Quantum Mechanics. The quantum conserved vector is

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Lenz v. Commonwealth 544 S.E.2d 299 (Va. 2001) Remington v. Commonwealth 551 S.E.2d 620 (Va. 2001)

Lenz v. Commonwealth 544 S.E.2d 299 (Va. 2001) Remington v. Commonwealth 551 S.E.2d 620 (Va. 2001)

Remington argued that the circuit court erred in not applying mandatory proportionality principles to impose a life sentence.” Like Lenz, Remington pointed out that there w[r]

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Recent loss of indigenous cover in New Zealand

Recent loss of indigenous cover in New Zealand

LENZ is a major step forward in depicting the abiotic components of terrestrial ecosystems, but its underlying climate and soil data layers must be maintained, updated and supplemented by the relevant agencies, leading to improved versions. Freshwater and marine environment classifications will be released shortly, and will require similar upkeep. Biotic inventory and monitoring in New Zealand is largely uncoordinated and underdeveloped. The land cover data layers (LCDB1, LCDB2) used in this study provide a rudimentary basis for regular assessments of changes in indigenous cover on land, while the legally protected areas database (PANZ) provides elementary information on its legal protection. As shown here, when integrated with LENZ environments, these surrogate databases can provide national indices of representativeness (i.e. the continuing existence of natural habitats and their legal protection across land environments). These indices can be tracked over time to indicate progress towards conservation goals provided that date-stamped updates are funded by the relevant national agencies.

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Computational approach to scaling and criticality in planar Ising models

Computational approach to scaling and criticality in planar Ising models

One of the simplest models in statistical mechanics is the Ising model. It was originally introduced as a model of a phase transition in magnets, i.e. the Curie point. While viewing the magnet as just a combination of small magnets aligned along a single axis and interacting only with their nearest-neighbours could be viewed as an oversimplification, it has nevertheless revealed rather rich physics, and in fact can be seen as more correct model than a naive ensemble of magnets due to quantum effects. When it was originally proposed by Lenz [1] and solved for the 1D case by Ising [2], rich physics was not seen because for the 1D case there is no phase transition in the model, and the free energy is always a regular function except at zero temperature. Overgeneralisation of this result even led to the theories that still reside in some text books, namely Landau [3] theory, that most phase transitions are not represented by any singularities in the free energy, but are just some change of the internal arrangements or symmetry.

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Crowdsourcing an OCR Gold Standard for a German and French Heritage Corpus

Crowdsourcing an OCR Gold Standard for a German and French Heritage Corpus

Crowdsourcing an OCR Gold Standard for a German and French Heritage Corpus Simon Clematide, Lenz Furrer, Martin Volk Institute of Computational Linguistics University of Zurich, Switzerland {simon cle[.]

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Ambient Temperature Effects on a High Voltage Power Line

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Ambient Temperature Effects on a High Voltage Power Line

temperature ( o C) ; R: resistance of a conductor at the permissible temperature (Ω / m) ; Wd: dielectric losses in the conductor insulation (W / m) ; T1: the conductor insulation thermic resistance (K.m / W) ; T2: the inner sheath thermic resistance (K.m /W) ; T3: the outer thermic resistance (K.m / W); T4: the environment thermic resistance (K.m/W) ; n: number of conductors actually traveled by the current ; λ 1 : losses ratio in the screen to losses joule

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Enhanced Energetic Performances Based on Integration with the Al/PTFE Nanolaminates

Enhanced Energetic Performances Based on Integration with the Al/PTFE Nanolaminates

Exploding foil initiator (EFI) is a type of electric generation pyrotechnic devices used for initiation of secondary reactions [20]. After applying an electric pulse, instantly increasing current density causes the vaporization of metal film bridge and the generation of high pressure plasma. Then, the flyer on the film bridge is sheared and accelerated to impact the explosives. With the increasing requirements for electric ignition device miniaturization and low energy initiation, the integration of nanoenergetic layers with a metal film bridge based on microelectronic and mechanical system (MEMS) technology to achieve functional nanoenergetic-on-a-chip (NOC) constitutes a promising option for the development of EFI. The combination of the reaction heat of energetic materials with the traditional electrical joule of metal film bridge make it possible to improve the electric explosion performances of EFI with low energy initiation in a com- pact size.

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A Myth of Loss: Religion, Death and Love in Philip Pullman's "His Dark Materials"

A Myth of Loss: Religion, Death and Love in Philip Pullman’s “His Dark Materials”

ecstatic  union  transforms  the  universe,”  its  “consequences  for  human  society  can   be  realized  only  if  they  separate”  (Shohet  33).  It  is  through  saying  goodbye,   through  separation,  that  each  of  them  can  return  to  their  own  worlds  and   continue  on  working  to  build  the  republic  of  heaven,  in  their  own  respective   worlds.  Thus,  for  Will  and  Lyra,  the  “fantasies  of  escape  to  an  alternative  world   are  foreclosed  …  [they]  must  live  in  [their  own  world]  and  make  it  as  much  like   “heaven”  as  humanly  possible”  (Lenz  9).  Will  and  Lyra  have  no  possibilities  of  a   future  together,  if  they  wish  to  live  out  their  lives  to  its  full  potential,  and  make   the  best  of  the  one  life  they  are  given.  Similar  to  Will  and  Lyra’s  love,  and  the  way   the  relationship  ends,  there  is  also  the  separation  of  the  angels  Baruch  and   Balthamos.  They  both  die  in  the  end,  and  are  not  given  the  chance  to  live  out   their  angelic  lives  together.  There  is  also  the  case  of  Mary  Malone’s  first  love,  the   boy  who  gives  her  marzipan  and  who  she  then  kisses.  The  reader  is  only  told  that   the  boy  eventually  moves  away  and  they  do  not  stay  in  touch  or  see  each  other   again.  Also  with  the  relationship  she  has  later  on,  with  someone  else,  it  does  not   seem  to  work,  and  they  both  go  their  own  ways.  Thus,  for  a  number  of  reasons,   be  it  physical  separation,  death  or  a  matter  of  mutual  consent,  relationships   based  on  love  do  not  seem  to  endure  in  Pullman’s  trilogy.  Lyra  also  has  to  say   goodbye  to  her  friends  Roger  and  Lee  Scoresby,  and  Will  has  to  say  goodbye  to   his  father;  most  loved  ones  simply  do  not  seem  to  stay  for  long  in  the  children’s   lives.    

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Report drawn up on behalf of the Political Affairs Committee on the situation in Central America, Part B: Explanatory statement Working Documents 1984 1985, Document 1 56/84/B, 2 April 1984

Report drawn up on behalf of the Political Affairs Committee on the situation in Central America, Part B: Explanatory statement. Working Documents 1984-1985, Document 1-56/84/B, 2 April 1984

MOTION FOR A RESOLUTION tabled by Mr PEDINI, Mr BARBI, Mr LANGES and Mrs LENZ on behalf of the Group of the European People’ Party pursuant to Rule 47 of the Rules of Procedure on the s[r]

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N body dynamics on closed surfaces : the axioms of mechanics

N body dynamics on closed surfaces : the axioms of mechanics

In this article we show that Newton’s first Law, the Law of inertia, is not universal. In particular, on compact surfaces without boundaries that are conformal to the sphere, we show that the Law of Inertia is only valid in special geometries, namely surfaces with constant Gaussian curvature. We can therefore view Newton’s first law as playing a similar role for a Mechanical System, on a sphere or on a surface conformal to the sphere, as Euclid’s fifth postulate distinguishing planar geometry from spherical geometry.

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