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Carbon dioxide

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Chemical compound with formula CO₂

Carbon dioxide

Structural formula of carbon dioxide with bond length

Ball-and-stick model of carbon dioxide

Space-filling model of carbon dioxide

Names
Other names

  • Carbonic acid gas
  • Carbonic anhydride
  • Carbonic dioxide
  • Carbon(IV) oxide
  • R-744 (

    refrigerant

    )

  • R744 (refrigerant alternative spelling)
  • Dry ice

    (solid phase)

Identifiers

CAS Number

  • 124-38-9

     checkY

3D model (

JSmol

)

  • Interactive image

  • Interactive image

3DMet
  • B01131

Beilstein Reference

1900390

ChEBI

  • CHEBI:16526

     checkY

ChEMBL

  • ChEMBL1231871

     ☒N

ChemSpider

  • 274

     checkY

ECHA InfoCard

100.004.271

Edit this at Wikidata

EC Number

  • 204-696-9

E number

E290

(preservatives)

Gmelin Reference

989

KEGG

  • D00004

     checkY

MeSH

Carbon+dioxide

PubChem

CID

  • 280

RTECS number

  • FF6400000

UNII

  • 142M471B3J

     checkY

UN number

1013 (gas), 1845 (solid)

CompTox Dashboard

(EPA)

  • DTXSID4027028

    Edit this at Wikidata

InChI

  • InChI=1S/CO2/c2-1-3 checkY
    Key: CURLTUGMZLYLDI-UHFFFAOYSA-N checkY
  • InChI=1/CO2/c2-1-3
    Key: CURLTUGMZLYLDI-UHFFFAOYAO

SMILES

  • O=C=O
  • C(=O)=O
Properties

Chemical formula

CO2

Molar mass

44.009 g·mol−1
Appearance Colorless gas

Odor

  • Low concentrations: none
  • High concentrations: sharp; acidic

    [1]

Density

  • 1562 kg/m3(solid at 1 atm (100 kPa) and −78.5 °C (−109.3 °F))
  • 1101 kg/m3(liquid at saturation −37 °C (−35 °F))
  • 1.977 kg/m3(gas at 1 atm (100 kPa) and 0 °C (32 °F))

Melting point

−56.6 °C; −69.8 °F; 216.6 K (

triple point

at 5.1 atm (0.52 MPa))

Critical point

(T, P)

31.1 °C (304.2 K), 7.38 MPa (72.8 atm)

Sublimation
conditions

−78.5 °C (−109.3 °F); 194.7 K (1 atm (0.10 MPa))

Solubility in water

1.45 g/L at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa (0.99 atm)

Vapor pressure

5.73 MPa (56.6 atm) (20 °C (293 K))

Acidity

(pKa)

6.35, 10.33

Magnetic susceptibility

(χ)

−20.5·10−6 cm3/mol

Thermal conductivity

0.01662 W·m−1·K−1 (300 K (27 °C; 80 °F))

[2]

Refractive index

(nD)

1.00045

Viscosity

  • 14.90 μPa·s at 25 °C (298 K)

    [3]

  • 70 μPa·s at −78.5 °C (194.7 K)

Dipole moment

0 D
Structure

Crystal structure

Trigonal

Molecular shape

Linear

Thermochemistry

Heat capacity

(C)

37.135 J/K·mol

Std molar
entropy

(So298)

214 J·mol−1·K−1

Std enthalpy of
formation

fH298)

−393.5 kJ·mol−1
Pharmacology

ATC code

V03AN02

(

WHO

)

Hazards

Safety data sheet

See:

data page

Sigma-Aldrich

NFPA 704

(fire diamond)

[6]

[7]

2

0

0

SA

Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
LCLo (

lowest published

)

90,000 ppm (human, 5 min)

[5]

NIOSH

(US health exposure limits):

PEL

(Permissible)

TWA 5000 ppm (9000 mg/m3)

[4]

REL

(Recommended)

TWA 5000 ppm (9000 mg/m3), ST 30,000 ppm (54,000 mg/m3)

[4]

IDLH

(Immediate danger)

40,000 ppm

[4]

Related compounds
Other

anions

  • Carbon disulfide

  • Carbon diselenide

  • Carbon ditelluride

Other

cations

  • Silicon dioxide

  • Germanium dioxide

  • Tin dioxide

  • Lead dioxide

Related

carbon

oxides

  • Carbon monoxide

  • Carbon suboxide

  • Dicarbon monoxide

  • Carbon trioxide

Related compounds
  • Carbonic acid

  • Carbonyl sulfide

Supplementary data page

Structure and
properties

Refractive index

(n),

Dielectric constant

r), etc.

Thermodynamic
data

Phase behaviour

solid–liquid–gas

Spectral data

UV

,

IR

,

NMR

,

MS

Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their

standard state

(at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).

☒N 

verify

 (

what is

 checkY☒N ?)

Infobox references

Chemical compound

Carbon dioxide (

chemical formula

CO
2
) is an acidic colorless

gas

with a density about 53% higher than that of dry air. Carbon dioxide

molecules

consist of a

carbon

atom

covalently

double bonded

to two

oxygen

atoms. It occurs naturally in

Earth’s atmosphere

as a

trace gas

. The current concentration is about 0.04% (412 

ppm

) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm.

[8]

Natural sources include

volcanoes

,

hot springs

and

geysers

, and it is freed from

carbonate rocks

by

dissolution

in water and acids. Because carbon dioxide is soluble in water, it occurs naturally in

groundwater

,

rivers

and

lakes

,

ice caps

,

glaciers

and

seawater

. It is present in deposits of

petroleum

and

natural gas

. Carbon dioxide has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of

soda water

in the mouth.

[9]

However, at normally encountered concentrations it is odorless.

[1]

As the source of available carbon in the

carbon cycle

,

atmospheric carbon dioxide

is the primary carbon source for

life on Earth

and its concentration in Earth’s pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the

Precambrian

has been regulated by

photosynthetic

organisms and geological phenomena.

Plants

,

algae

and

cyanobacteria

use

light

energy

to

photosynthesize

carbohydrate

from carbon dioxide and water, with oxygen produced as a waste product.

[10]

CO2 is produced by all

aerobic organisms

when they metabolize

organic compounds

to produce energy by

respiration

.

[11]

For instance, plants use it to produce carbohydrates in a process called photosynthesis. Since humans and animals depend on plants for food, photosynthesis, and therefore CO2, is necessary for the survival of life on earth.

It is returned to water via the

gills of fish

and to the air via the lungs of air-breathing land animals, including humans. Carbon dioxide is produced during the processes of

decay

of organic materials and the

fermentation

of sugars in

bread

,

beer

and

wine

making. It is produced by combustion of

wood

,

peat

and other organic materials and

fossil fuels

such as

coal

,

petroleum

and

natural gas

. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale

oxidation

processes, for example, in the production of

acrylic acid

(over 5 million tons/year).

[12]

[13]

[14]

It is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and

fire extinguishers

, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, as a chemical feedstock and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and

supercritical drying

.

[15]

It is added to drinking water and

carbonated beverages

including

beer

and

sparkling wine

to add

effervescence

. The frozen solid form of CO2, known as

dry ice

is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in

dry-ice blasting

. It is a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals.

[16]

[17]

[18]

[19]

Carbon dioxide is the most significant long-lived

greenhouse gas

in

Earth’s atmosphere

. Since the

Industrial Revolution

anthropogenic emissions – primarily from use of fossil fuels and

deforestation

– have rapidly increased its concentration in the atmosphere, leading to

global warming

. Carbon dioxide also causes

ocean acidification

because it dissolves in water to form

carbonic acid

.

[20]

History

Crystal structure of

dry ice

Carbon dioxide was the first gas to be described as a discrete substance. In about 1640,

[21]

the

Flemish

chemist

Jan Baptist van Helmont

observed that when he burned

charcoal

in a closed vessel, the mass of the resulting

ash

was much less than that of the original charcoal. His interpretation was that the rest of the charcoal had been transmuted into an invisible substance he termed a “gas” or “wild spirit” (spiritus sylvestris).

[22]

The properties of carbon dioxide were further studied in the 1750s by the

Scottish

physician

Joseph Black

. He found that

limestone

(

calcium carbonate

) could be heated or treated with

acids

to yield a gas he called “fixed air.” He observed that the fixed air was denser than air and supported neither flame nor animal life. Black also found that when bubbled through

limewater

(a saturated aqueous solution of

calcium hydroxide

), it would

precipitate

calcium carbonate. He used this phenomenon to illustrate that carbon dioxide is produced by animal respiration and microbial fermentation. In 1772, English chemist

Joseph Priestley

published a paper entitled Impregnating Water with Fixed Air in which he described a process of dripping

sulfuric acid

(or oil of vitriol as Priestley knew it) on chalk in order to produce carbon dioxide, and forcing the gas to dissolve by agitating a bowl of water in contact with the gas.

[23]

Carbon dioxide was first liquefied (at elevated pressures) in 1823 by

Humphry Davy

and

Michael Faraday

.

[24]

The earliest description of solid carbon dioxide (

dry ice

) was given by the French inventor

Adrien-Jean-Pierre Thilorier

, who in 1835 opened a pressurized container of liquid carbon dioxide, only to find that the cooling produced by the rapid evaporation of the liquid yielded a “snow” of solid CO2.

[25]

[26]

Chemical and physical properties

Bạn đang xem: Carbon dioxide-Wikipedia

Structure and bonding

The carbon dioxide molecule is linear and

centrosymmetric

at equilibrium. The

carbon–oxygen bond

length is 116.3 

pm

, noticeably shorter than the

bond length

of a C–O single bond and even shorter than most other C–O multiply-bonded functional groups.

[27]

Since it is centrosymmetric, the molecule has no electrical

dipole

.

Stretching and bending oscillations

of the CO2 carbon dioxide molecule. Upper left: symmetric stretching. Upper right: antisymmetric stretching. Lower line: degenerate pair of bending modes.

As a linear triatomic molecule, CO2 has four vibrational modes as shown in the diagram. However, the symmetric stretching mode does not create a dipole and so is not observed in the IR spectrum. The two bending modes are degenerate, meaning that they correspond to only one frequency. Consequently, only two vibrational bands are observed in the

IR spectrum

– an antisymmetric stretching mode at

wavenumber

2349 cm−1 (wavelength 4.25 μm) and a

degenerate

pair of bending modes at 667 cm−1 (wavelength 15 μm). There is also a symmetric stretching mode at 1388 cm−1 which is only observed in the

Raman spectrum

.

[28]

As a result of the two bending modes, the molecule is only strictly linear when the amount of bending is zero. It has been shown both by theory

[29]

and by Coulomb explosion imaging experiments

[30]

that this is never actually true for both modes at once. In a gas phase sample of carbon dioxide, none of the molecules are linear as a result of the vibrational motions. However, the molecular geometry is still described as linear, which describes the average atomic positions corresponding to minimum potential energy. This is also true for other “linear” molecules.

In aqueous solution

Carbon dioxide is

soluble

in water, in which it reversibly forms H
2
CO
3
(

carbonic acid

), which is a

weak acid

since its ionization in water is incomplete.

CO
2
+ H
2
O
H
2
CO
3

The

hydration equilibrium constant

of carbonic acid is Kh=[H2CO3][CO2(aq)]=1.70×10−3{displaystyle K_{mathrm {h} }={frac {rm {[H_{2}CO_{3}]}}{rm {[CO_{2}(aq)]}}}=1.70times 10^{-3}} (at 25 °C). Hence, the majority of the carbon dioxide is not converted into carbonic acid, but remains as CO2 molecules, not affecting the pH.

The relative concentrations of CO
2
, H
2
CO
3
, and the

deprotonated

forms HCO
3
(

bicarbonate

) and CO2−
3
(

carbonate

) depend on the

pH

. As shown in a

Bjerrum plot

, in neutral or slightly alkaline water (pH > 6.5), the bicarbonate form predominates (>50%) becoming the most prevalent (>95%) at the pH of seawater. In very alkaline water (pH > 10.4), the predominant (>50%) form is carbonate. The oceans, being mildly alkaline with typical pH = 8.2–8.5, contain about 120 mg of bicarbonate per liter.

Being

diprotic

, carbonic acid has two

acid dissociation constants

, the first one for the dissociation into the bicarbonate (also called hydrogen carbonate) ion (HCO3):

H2CO3 ⇌ HCO3 + H+
Ka1 = 2.5×10−4 mol/L; pKa1 = 3.6 at 25 °C.

[27]

This is the true first acid dissociation constant, defined as Ka1=[HCO3−][H+][H2CO3]{displaystyle K_{a1}={frac {rm {[HCO_{3}^{-}][H^{+}]}}{rm {[H_{2}CO_{3}]}}}}, where the denominator includes only covalently bound H2CO3 and does not include hydrated CO2(aq). The much smaller and often-quoted value near 4.16×10−7 is an apparent value calculated on the (incorrect) assumption that all dissolved CO2 is present as carbonic acid, so that Ka1(apparent)=[HCO3−][H+][H2CO3]+[CO2(aq)]{displaystyle K_{mathrm {a1} }{rm {(apparent)}}={frac {rm {[HCO_{3}^{-}][H^{+}]}}{rm {[H_{2}CO_{3}]+[CO_{2}(aq)]}}}}. Since most of the dissolved CO2 remains as CO2 molecules, Ka1(apparent) has a much larger denominator and a much smaller value than the true Ka1.

[31]

The

bicarbonate

ion is an

amphoteric

species that can act as an acid or as a base, depending on pH of the solution. At high

pH

, it dissociates significantly into the

carbonate

ion (CO32−):

HCO3 ⇌ CO32− + H+
Ka2 = 4.69×10−11 mol/L; pKa2 = 10.329

In organisms carbonic acid production is catalysed by the

enzyme

,

carbonic anhydrase

.

Chemical reactions of CO2

CO2 is a potent

electrophile

having an electrophilic reactivity that is comparable to

benzaldehyde

or strong

α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds

. However, unlike electrophiles of similar reactivity, the reactions of nucleophiles with CO2 are thermodynamically less favored and are often found to be highly reversible.

[32]

Only very strong nucleophiles, like the

carbanions

provided by

Grignard reagents

and

organolithium compounds

react with CO2 to give

carboxylates

:

MR + CO2 → RCO2M
where M =

Li

or

Mg

Br

and R =

alkyl

or

aryl

.

In

metal carbon dioxide complexes

, CO2 serves as a

ligand

, which can facilitate the conversion of CO2 to other chemicals.

[33]

The reduction of CO2 to

CO

is ordinarily a difficult and slow reaction:

CO2 + 2 e + 2H+ → CO + H2O

Photoautotrophs

(i.e. plants and

cyanobacteria

) use the energy contained in sunlight to

photosynthesize

simple sugars from CO2 absorbed from the air and water:

n CO2 + n H
2
O
(CH
2
O)
n
+ n O
2

The

redox potential

for this reaction near pH 7 is about −0.53 V versus the

standard hydrogen electrode

. The nickel-containing enzyme

carbon monoxide dehydrogenase

catalyses this process.

[34]

Physical properties

Pellets of “dry ice”, a common form of solid carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide is colorless. At low concentrations the gas is odorless; however, at sufficiently-high concentrations, it has a sharp, acidic odor.

[1]

At

standard temperature and pressure

, the density of carbon dioxide is around 1.98 kg/m3, about 1.53 times that of

air

.

[35]

Carbon dioxide has no liquid state at pressures below 5.1

standard atmospheres

(520 kPa). At 1 atmosphere (near mean sea level pressure), the gas

deposits

directly to a solid at temperatures below −78.5 °C (−109.3 °F; 194.7 K) and the solid

sublimes

directly to a gas above −78.5 °C. In its solid state, carbon dioxide is commonly called

dry ice

.

Pressure–temperature

phase diagram

of carbon dioxide. Note that it is a log-lin chart.

Liquid carbon dioxide forms only at

pressures

above 5.1 atm; the

triple point

of carbon dioxide is about 5.1

bar

(517

kPa

) at 217 K (see phase diagram). The

critical point

is 7.38 MPa at 31.1 °C.

[36]

[37]

Another form of solid carbon dioxide observed at high pressure is an

amorphous

glass-like solid.

[38]

This form of glass, called

carbonia

, is produced by

supercooling

heated CO2 at extreme pressure (40–48

GPa

or about 400,000 atmospheres) in a

diamond anvil

. This discovery confirmed the theory that carbon dioxide could exist in a glass state similar to other members of its elemental family, like

silicon

(

silica glass

) and

germanium dioxide

. Unlike silica and germania glasses, however, carbonia glass is not stable at normal pressures and reverts to gas when pressure is released.

At temperatures and pressures above the critical point, carbon dioxide behaves as a

supercritical fluid

known as

supercritical carbon dioxide

.

Isolation and production

Carbon dioxide can be obtained by

distillation

from air, but the method is inefficient. Industrially, carbon dioxide is predominantly an unrecovered waste product, produced by several methods which may be practiced at various scales.

[39]

The

combustion

of all

carbon-based fuels

, such as

methane

(

natural gas

), petroleum distillates (

gasoline

,

diesel

,

kerosene

,

propane

), coal, wood and generic organic matter produces carbon dioxide and, except in the case of pure carbon, water. As an example, the chemical reaction between methane and oxygen:

CH
4
+ 2 O
2
CO
2
+ 2 H
2
O

It is produced by thermal decomposition of limestone, CaCO
3
by heating (

calcining

) at about 850 °C (1,560 °F), in the manufacture of

quicklime

(

calcium oxide

, CaO), a compound that has many industrial uses:

CaCO
3
CaO + CO
2

Iron

is reduced from its oxides with

coke

in a

blast furnace

, producing

pig iron

and carbon dioxide:

[40]

Carbon dioxide is a byproduct of the industrial production of hydrogen by

steam reforming

and the

water gas shift reaction

in

ammonia production

. These processes begin with the reaction of water and natural gas (mainly methane).

[41]

This is a major source of food-grade carbon dioxide for use in carbonation of

beer

and

soft drinks

, and is also used for stunning animals such as

poultry

. In the summer of 2018 a shortage of carbon dioxide for these purposes arose in Europe due to the temporary shut-down of several ammonia plants for maintenance.

[42]

Acids liberate CO2 from most metal carbonates. Consequently, it may be obtained directly from natural carbon dioxide

springs

, where it is produced by the action of acidified water on

limestone

or

dolomite

. The reaction between

hydrochloric acid

and calcium carbonate (limestone or chalk) is shown below:

CaCO
3
+ 2 HClCaCl
2
+ H
2
CO
3

The

carbonic acid

(H
2
CO
3
) then decomposes to water and CO2:

H
2
CO
3
CO
2
+ H
2
O

Such reactions are accompanied by foaming or bubbling, or both, as the gas is released. They have widespread uses in industry because they can be used to neutralize waste acid streams.

Carbon dioxide is a by-product of the

fermentation

of

sugar

in the

brewing

of

beer

,

whisky

and other

alcoholic beverages

and in the production of

bioethanol

.

Yeast

metabolizes

sugar

to produce CO2 and

ethanol

, also known as alcohol, as follows:

C
6
H
12
O
6
→ 2 CO
2
+ 2 C
2
H
5
OH

All

aerobic

organisms produce CO2 when they oxidize

carbohydrates

,

fatty acids

, and proteins. The large number of reactions involved are exceedingly complex and not described easily. Refer to (

cellular respiration

,

anaerobic respiration

and

photosynthesis

). The equation for the respiration of glucose and other

monosaccharides

is:

C
6
H
12
O
6
+ 6 O
2
→ 6 CO
2
+ 6 H
2
O

Anaerobic organisms

decompose organic material producing methane and carbon dioxide together with traces of other compounds.

[43]

Regardless of the type of organic material, the production of gases follows well defined

kinetic pattern

. Carbon dioxide comprises about 40–45% of the gas that emanates from decomposition in landfills (termed “

landfill gas

“). Most of the remaining 50–55% is methane.

[44]

Applications

Carbon dioxide is used by the food industry, the oil industry, and the chemical industry.

[39]

The compound has varied commercial uses but one of its greatest uses as a chemical is in the production of carbonated beverages; it provides the sparkle in carbonated beverages such as soda water, beer and sparkling wine.

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Precursor to chemicals

In the chemical industry, carbon dioxide is mainly consumed as an ingredient in the production of

urea

, with a smaller fraction being used to produce

methanol

and a range of other products.

[45]

Some carboxylic acid derivatives such as

sodium salicylate

are prepared using CO2 by the

Kolbe-Schmitt reaction

.

[46]

In addition to conventional processes using CO2 for chemical production, electrochemical methods are also being explored at a research level. In particular, the use of renewable energy for production of fuels from CO2 (such as methanol) is attractive as this could result in fuels that could be easily transported and used within conventional combustion technologies but have no net CO2 emissions.

[47]

Foods

Carbon dioxide bubbles in a soft drink.

Carbon dioxide is a

food additive

used as a propellant and acidity regulator in the food industry. It is approved for usage in the EU

[48]

(listed as

E number

E290), US

[49]

and Australia and New Zealand

[50]

(listed by its

INS number

290).

A candy called

Pop Rocks

is pressurized with carbon dioxide gas

[51]

at about 4,000 

kPa

(40 

bar

; 580 

psi

). When placed in the mouth, it dissolves (just like other hard candy) and releases the gas bubbles with an audible pop.

Leavening agents

cause dough to rise by producing carbon dioxide.

[52]

Baker’s yeast

produces carbon dioxide by fermentation of sugars within the dough, while chemical leaveners such as

baking powder

and

baking soda

release carbon dioxide when heated or if exposed to

acids

.

Beverages

Carbon dioxide is used to produce

carbonated

soft drinks

and

soda water

. Traditionally, the carbonation of beer and sparkling wine came about through natural fermentation, but many manufacturers carbonate these drinks with carbon dioxide recovered from the fermentation process. In the case of bottled and kegged beer, the most common method used is carbonation with recycled carbon dioxide. With the exception of British

real ale

, draught beer is usually transferred from kegs in a cold room or cellar to dispensing taps on the bar using pressurized carbon dioxide, sometimes mixed with nitrogen.

The taste of soda water (and related taste sensations in other carbonated beverages) is an effect of the dissolved carbon dioxide rather than the bursting bubbles of the gas.

Carbonic anhydrase 4

converts to

carbonic acid

leading to a

sour

taste, and also the dissolved carbon dioxide induces a

somatosensory

response.

[53]

Winemaking

Dry ice used to preserve grapes after harvest.

Carbon dioxide in the form of

dry ice

is often used during the

cold soak

phase in

winemaking

to cool clusters of

grapes

quickly after picking to help prevent spontaneous

fermentation

by wild

yeast

. The main advantage of using dry ice over water ice is that it cools the grapes without adding any additional water that might decrease the

sugar

concentration in the

grape must

, and thus the

alcohol

concentration in the finished wine. Carbon dioxide is also used to create a hypoxic environment for

carbonic maceration

, the process used to produce

Beaujolais

wine.

Carbon dioxide is sometimes used to top up wine bottles or other

storage

vessels such as barrels to prevent oxidation, though it has the problem that it can dissolve into the wine, making a previously still wine slightly fizzy. For this reason, other gases such as

nitrogen

or

argon

are preferred for this process by professional wine makers.

Stunning animals

Carbon dioxide is often used to “stun” animals before slaughter.

[54]

“Stunning” may be a misnomer, as the animals are not knocked out immediately and may suffer distress.

[55]

[56]

Inert gas

It is one of the most commonly used compressed gases for pneumatic (pressurized gas) systems in portable pressure tools. Carbon dioxide is also used as an atmosphere for

welding

, although in the welding arc, it reacts to

oxidize

most metals. Use in the automotive industry is common despite significant evidence that welds made in carbon dioxide are more

brittle

than those made in more inert atmospheres.[

citation needed

] When used for

MIG welding

, CO2 use is sometimes referred to as MAG welding, for Metal Active Gas, as CO2 can react at these high temperatures. It tends to produce a hotter puddle than truly inert atmospheres, improving the flow characteristics. Although, this may be due to atmospheric reactions occurring at the puddle site. This is usually the opposite of the desired effect when welding, as it tends to embrittle the site, but may not be a problem for general mild steel welding, where ultimate ductility is not a major concern.

It is used in many consumer products that require pressurized gas because it is inexpensive and nonflammable, and because it undergoes a phase transition from gas to liquid at room temperature at an attainable pressure of approximately 60 

bar

(870 

psi

; 59 

atm

), allowing far more carbon dioxide to fit in a given container than otherwise would. Life jackets often contain canisters of pressured carbon dioxide for quick inflation.

Aluminium

capsules of CO2 are also sold as supplies of compressed gas for

air guns

,

paintball

markers/guns, inflating bicycle tires, and for making

carbonated water

. High concentrations of carbon dioxide can also be used to kill pests. Liquid carbon dioxide is used in

supercritical drying

of some food products and technological materials, in the preparation of specimens for

scanning electron microscopy

[57]

and in the

decaffeination

of

coffee

beans.

Fire extinguisher

Use of a CO2 fire extinguisher.

Carbon dioxide can be used to extinguish flames by flooding the environment around the flame with the gas. It does not itself react to extinguish the flame, but starves the flame of oxygen by displacing it. Some

fire extinguishers

, especially those designed for electrical fires, contain liquid carbon dioxide under pressure. Carbon dioxide extinguishers work well on small flammable liquid and electrical fires, but not on ordinary combustible fires, because although it excludes oxygen, it does not cool the burning substances significantly and when the carbon dioxide disperses they are free to catch fire upon exposure to atmospheric oxygen. Their desirability in electrical fire stems from the fact that, unlike water or other chemical based methods, Carbon dioxide will not cause short circuits, leading to even more damage to equipment. Because it is a gas, it is also easy to dispense large amounts of the gas automatically in IT infrastructure rooms, where the fire itself might be hard to reach with more immediate methods because it is behind rack doors and inside of cases. Carbon dioxide has also been widely used as an extinguishing agent in fixed fire protection systems for local application of specific hazards and total flooding of a protected space.

[58]

International Maritime Organization

standards also recognize carbon dioxide systems for fire protection of ship holds and engine rooms. Carbon dioxide based fire protection systems have been linked to several deaths, because it can cause suffocation in sufficiently high concentrations. A review of CO2 systems identified 51 incidents between 1975 and the date of the report (2000), causing 72 deaths and 145 injuries.

[59]

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Supercritical CO2 as solvent

Liquid carbon dioxide is a good

solvent

for many

lipophilic

organic compounds

and is used to remove

caffeine

from

coffee

.

[15]

Carbon dioxide has attracted attention in the

pharmaceutical

and other chemical processing industries as a less toxic alternative to more traditional solvents such as

organochlorides

. It is also used by some

dry cleaners

for this reason (see

green chemistry

). It is used in the preparation of some

aerogels

because of the properties of supercritical carbon dioxide.

Agriculture

Plants require carbon dioxide to conduct

photosynthesis

. The atmospheres of greenhouses may (if of large size, must) be enriched with additional CO2 to sustain and increase the rate of plant growth.

[60]

[61]

At very high concentrations (100 times atmospheric concentration, or greater), carbon dioxide can be toxic to animal life, so raising the concentration to 10,000 ppm (1%) or higher for several hours will eliminate pests such as

whiteflies

and

spider mites

in a greenhouse.

[62]

Medical and pharmacological uses

In medicine, up to 5% carbon dioxide (130 times atmospheric concentration) is added to

oxygen

for stimulation of breathing after

apnea

and to stabilize the O
2
/CO
2
balance in blood.

Carbon dioxide can be mixed with up to 50% oxygen, forming an inhalable gas; this is known as

Carbogen

and has a variety of medical and research uses.

Energy

Fossil fuel recovery

Carbon dioxide is used in

enhanced oil recovery

where it is injected into or adjacent to producing oil wells, usually under

supercritical

conditions, when it becomes

miscible

with the oil. This approach can increase original oil recovery by reducing residual oil saturation by between 7% to 23% additional to

primary extraction

.

[63]

It acts as both a pressurizing agent and, when dissolved into the underground

crude oil

, significantly reduces its viscosity, and changing surface chemistry enabling the oil to flow more rapidly through the reservoir to the removal well.

[64]

In mature oil fields, extensive pipe networks are used to carry the carbon dioxide to the injection points.

In

enhanced coal bed methane recovery

, carbon dioxide would be pumped into the coal seam to displace methane, as opposed to current methods which primarily rely on the removal of water (to reduce pressure) to make the coal seam release its trapped methane.

[65]

Bio transformation into fuel

It has been proposed that CO2 from power generation be bubbled into ponds to stimulate growth of algae that could then be converted into

biodiesel

fuel.

[66]

A strain of the

cyanobacterium

Synechococcus elongatus

has been genetically engineered to produce the fuels

isobutyraldehyde

and

isobutanol

from CO2 using photosynthesis.

[67]

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Refrigerant

Comparison of the pressure–temperature phase diagrams of carbon dioxide (red) and water (blue) as a log-lin chart with phase transitions points at 1 atmosphere

Liquid and solid carbon dioxide are important

refrigerants

, especially in the food industry, where they are employed during the transportation and storage of ice cream and other frozen foods. Solid carbon dioxide is called “dry ice” and is used for small shipments where refrigeration equipment is not practical. Solid carbon dioxide is always below −78.5 °C (−109.3 °F) at regular atmospheric pressure, regardless of the air temperature.

Liquid carbon dioxide (industry nomenclature R744 or R-744) was used as a refrigerant prior to the use[

citation needed

] of

dichlorodifluoromethane

(R12, a

chlorofluorocarbon

(CFC) compound). CO
2
might enjoy a renaissance because one of the main substitutes to CFC’s,

1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane

(

R134a

, a

hydrofluorocarbon

(HFC) compound) contributes to

climate change

more than CO
2
does. CO
2
physical properties are highly favorable for cooling, refrigeration, and heating purposes, having a high volumetric cooling capacity. Due to the need to operate at pressures of up to 130 bars (1,900 psi; 13,000 kPa), CO
2
systems require highly mechanically resistant reservoirs and components that have already been developed for mass production in many sectors. In automobile air conditioning, in more than 90% of all driving conditions for latitudes higher than 50°, CO
2
(R744) operates more efficiently than systems using HFC’s (e.g., R134a). Its environmental advantages (

GWP

of 1, non-ozone depleting, non-toxic, non-flammable) could make it the future working fluid to replace current HFC’s in cars, supermarkets, and heat pump water heaters, among others.

Coca-Cola

has fielded CO
2
-based beverage coolers and the

U.S. Army

is interested in CO
2
refrigeration and heating technology.

[68]

[69]

The global automobile industry is expected to decide on the next-generation refrigerant in car air conditioning.[

when?

]CO
2
is one of the discussed options (see also:

Sustainable automotive air conditioning

).

Minor uses

A

carbon dioxide laser

.

Carbon dioxide is the

lasing medium

in a

carbon dioxide laser

, which is one of the earliest type of lasers.

Carbon dioxide can be used as a means of controlling the

pH

of swimming pools,

[70]

by continuously adding gas to the water, thus keeping the pH from rising. Among the advantages of this is the avoidance of handling (more hazardous) acids. Similarly, it is also used in the maintaining

reef aquaria

, where it is commonly used in

calcium reactors

to temporarily lower the pH of water being passed over

calcium carbonate

in order to allow the calcium carbonate to dissolve into the water more freely where it is used by some

corals

to build their skeleton.

Used as the primary coolant in the British

advanced gas-cooled reactor

for nuclear power generation.

Carbon dioxide induction is commonly used for the euthanasia of laboratory research animals. Methods to administer CO2 include placing animals directly into a closed, prefilled chamber containing CO2, or exposure to a gradually increasing concentration of CO2. In 2013, the

American Veterinary Medical Association

issued new guidelines for carbon dioxide induction, stating that a displacement rate of 30% to 70% of the

gas chamber

volume per minute is optimal for the humane euthanization of small rodents.

[71]

However, there is opposition to the practice of using carbon dioxide for this, on the grounds that it is cruel.

[56]

Carbon dioxide is also used in several related

cleaning and surface preparation

techniques.

In Earth’s atmosphere

Keeling Curve

of the atmospheric CO2 concentration.

[72]

Atmospheric CO2 annual growth rose 300% since the 1960s.

[73]

Carbon dioxide in

Earth’s atmosphere

is a

trace gas

, having a global average concentration of 415 parts per million by volume (or 630 parts per million by mass) as of the end of year 2020.

[74]

[75]

Atmospheric CO
2
concentrations fluctuate slightly with the seasons, falling during the

Northern Hemisphere

spring and summer as plants consume the gas and rising during northern autumn and winter as plants go dormant or die and decay. Concentrations also vary on a regional basis, most strongly

near the ground

with much smaller variations aloft. In urban areas concentrations are generally higher

[76]

and indoors they can reach 10 times background levels.

The concentration of carbon dioxide has risen due to human activities.

[77]

The extraction and burning of

fossil fuels

, using carbon that has been sequestered for many millions of years in the

lithosphere

, has caused the atmospheric concentration of CO
2
to increase by about 50% since the beginning of the

age of industrialization

up to year 2020.

[78]

[79]

Most CO
2
from human activities is released from burning coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Other large anthropogenic sources include cement production,

deforestation

, and biomass burning. Human activities emit over 30 billion tons of CO
2
(9 billion tons of fossil carbon) per year, while volcanoes emit only between 0.2 and 0.3 billion tons of CO
2
.

[80]

[81]

Human activities have caused CO2 to increase above levels not seen in hundreds of thousands of years. Currently, about half of the carbon dioxide released from the

burning of fossil fuels

remains in the

atmosphere

and is not absorbed by vegetation and the oceans.

[82]

[83]

[84]

[85]

Annual CO
2
flows from anthropogenic sources (left) into Earth’s atmosphere, land, and ocean sinks (right) since the 1960s. Units in equivalent gigatonnes carbon per year.

[79]

While transparent to

visible light

, carbon dioxide is a

greenhouse gas

, absorbing and emitting infrared radiation at its two infrared-active vibrational frequencies (see the section “

Structure and bonding

” above). Light emission from the Earth’s surface is most intense in the infrared region between 200 and 2500 cm−1,

[86]

as opposed to light emission from the much hotter Sun which is most intense in the visible region. Absorption of infrared light at the vibrational frequencies of atmospheric CO
2
traps energy near the surface, warming the surface and the lower atmosphere. Less energy reaches the upper atmosphere, which is therefore cooler because of this absorption.

[87]

Increases in atmospheric concentrations of CO
2
and other long-lived greenhouse gases such as methane, nitrous oxide and ozone have correspondingly strengthened their absorption and emission of infrared radiation, causing the rise in average global temperature since the mid-20th century. Carbon dioxide is of greatest concern because it exerts a larger overall warming influence than all of these other gases combined.

[78]

It furthermore has an

atmospheric lifetime

that increases with the cumulative amount of fossil carbon extracted and burned, due to the imbalance that this activity has imposed on Earth’s

fast carbon cycle

.

[88]

This means that some fraction (a projected 20-35%) of the fossil carbon transferred thus far will in-effect persist in the atmosphere as elevated CO
2
levels for many thousands of years after these carbon transfer activities begin to subside.

[89]

[90]

[91]

CO2 in

Earth

‘s

atmosphere

if half of global-warming emissions are not absorbed.

[82]

[83]

[84]

[85]


(

NASA

computer simulation

).

Not only do increasing CO
2
concentrations lead to increases in global surface temperature, but increasing global temperatures also cause increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide. This produces a

positive feedback

for changes induced by other processes such as

orbital cycles

.

[92]

Five hundred million years ago the CO
2
concentration was 20 times greater than today, decreasing to 4–5 times during the

Jurassic

period and then slowly declining with

a particularly swift reduction

occurring 49 million years ago.

[93]

[94]

Local concentrations of carbon dioxide can reach high values near strong sources, especially those that are isolated by surrounding terrain. At the Bossoleto hot spring near

Rapolano Terme

in

Tuscany

,

Italy

, situated in a bowl-shaped depression about 100 m (330 ft) in diameter, concentrations of CO2 rise to above 75% overnight, sufficient to kill insects and small animals. After sunrise the gas is dispersed by convection.

[95]

High concentrations of CO2 produced by disturbance of deep lake water saturated with CO2 are thought to have caused 37 fatalities at

Lake Monoun

,

Cameroon

in 1984 and 1700 casualties at

Lake Nyos

, Cameroon in 1986.

[96]

In the oceans

Pterapod shell dissolved in seawater adjusted to an

ocean chemistry

projected for the year 2100.

Carbon dioxide dissolves in the ocean to form

carbonic acid

(H2CO3),

bicarbonate

(HCO3) and

carbonate

(CO32−). There is about fifty times as much carbon dioxide dissolved in the oceans as exists in the atmosphere. The oceans act as an enormous

carbon sink

, and have taken up about a third of CO2 emitted by human activity.

[97]

As the concentration of carbon dioxide increases in the atmosphere, the increased uptake of carbon dioxide into the oceans is causing a measurable decrease in the pH of the oceans, which is referred to as

ocean acidification

. This reduction in pH affects biological systems in the oceans, primarily oceanic

calcifying

organisms. These effects span the

food chain

from

autotrophs

to

heterotrophs

and include organisms such as

coccolithophores

,

corals

,

foraminifera

,

echinoderms

,

crustaceans

and

mollusks

. Under normal conditions, calcium carbonate is stable in surface waters since the carbonate ion is at

supersaturating

concentrations. However, as ocean pH falls, so does the concentration of this ion, and when carbonate becomes undersaturated, structures made of calcium carbonate are vulnerable to dissolution.

[98]

Corals,

[99]

[100]

[101]

coccolithophore algae,

[102]

[103]

[104]

[105]

coralline algae,

[106]

foraminifera,

[107]

shellfish

[108]

and

pteropods

[109]

experience reduced calcification or enhanced dissolution when exposed to elevated CO
2
.

Gas solubility decreases as the temperature of water increases (except when both pressure exceeds 300 bar and temperature exceeds 393 K, only found near deep geothermal vents)

[110]

and therefore the rate of uptake from the atmosphere decreases as ocean temperatures rise.

Most of the CO2 taken up by the ocean, which is about 30% of the total released into the atmosphere,

[111]

forms carbonic acid in equilibrium with bicarbonate. Some of these chemical species are consumed by photosynthetic organisms that remove carbon from the cycle. Increased CO2 in the atmosphere has led to decreasing

alkalinity

of seawater, and there is concern that this may adversely affect organisms living in the water. In particular, with decreasing alkalinity, the availability of carbonates for forming shells decreases,

[112]

although there’s evidence of increased shell production by certain species under increased CO2 content.

[113]

NOAA states in their May 2008 “State of the science fact sheet for

ocean acidification

” that:
“The oceans have absorbed about 50% of the carbon dioxide (CO2) released from the burning of fossil fuels, resulting in chemical reactions that lower ocean pH. This has caused an increase in hydrogen ion (acidity) of about 30% since the start of the industrial age through a process known as “ocean acidification.” A growing number of studies have demonstrated adverse impacts on marine organisms, including:

  • The rate at which reef-building corals produce their skeletons decreases, while production of numerous varieties of jellyfish increases.
  • The ability of marine algae and free-swimming zooplankton to maintain protective shells is reduced.
  • The survival of larval marine species, including commercial fish and shellfish, is reduced.”

Also, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) writes in their Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report:

[114]


“The uptake of anthropogenic carbon since 1750 has led to the ocean becoming more acidic with an average decrease in pH of 0.1 units. Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations lead to further acidification … While the effects of observed ocean acidification on the marine biosphere are as yet undocumented, the progressive acidification of oceans is expected to have negative impacts on marine shell-forming organisms (e.g. corals) and their dependent species.”

Some marine calcifying organisms (including coral reefs) have been singled out by major research agencies, including NOAA, OSPAR commission, NANOOS and the IPCC, because their most current research shows that ocean acidification should be expected to impact them negatively.

[115]

Carbon dioxide is also introduced into the oceans through hydrothermal vents. The Champagne hydrothermal vent, found at the Northwest Eifuku volcano in the

Marianas Trench

, produces almost pure liquid carbon dioxide, one of only two known sites in the world as of 2004, the other being in the

Okinawa Trough

.

[116]

The finding of a submarine lake of liquid carbon dioxide in the Okinawa Trough was reported in 2006.

[117]

Biological role

Carbon dioxide is an end product of

cellular respiration

in organisms that obtain energy by breaking down sugars, fats and

amino acids

with

oxygen

as part of their

metabolism

. This includes all plants, algae and animals and

aerobic

fungi and bacteria. In

vertebrates

, the carbon dioxide travels in the blood from the body’s tissues to the skin (e.g.,

amphibians

) or the gills (e.g.,

fish

), from where it dissolves in the water, or to the lungs from where it is exhaled. During active photosynthesis,

plants can absorb more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere than they release

in respiration.

Photosynthesis and carbon fixation

Overview of photosynthesis and respiration. Carbon dioxide (at right), together with water, form oxygen and organic compounds (at left) by

photosynthesis

, which can be

respired

to water and (CO2).

Overview of the

Calvin cycle

and carbon fixation

Carbon fixation

is a biochemical process by which atmospheric carbon dioxide is incorporated by

plants

,

algae

and (

cyanobacteria

) into

energy-rich

organic

molecules

such as

glucose

, thus creating their own food by

photosynthesis

. Photosynthesis uses carbon dioxide and

water

to produce

sugars

from which other

organic compounds

can be constructed, and

oxygen

is produced as a by-product.

Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase

, commonly abbreviated to RuBisCO, is the

enzyme

involved in the first major step of carbon fixation, the production of two molecules of

3-phosphoglycerate

from CO2 and

ribulose bisphosphate

, as shown in the diagram at left.

RuBisCO is thought to be the single most abundant protein on Earth.

[118]

Phototrophs

use the products of their photosynthesis as internal food sources and as raw material for the

biosynthesis

of more complex organic molecules, such as

polysaccharides

,

nucleic acids

and

proteins

. These are used for their own growth, and also as the basis of the

food chains

and webs that feed other organisms, including animals such as ourselves. Some important phototrophs, the

coccolithophores

synthesise hard

calcium carbonate

scales.

[119]

A globally significant species of coccolithophore is

Emiliania huxleyi

whose

calcite

scales have formed the basis of many

sedimentary rocks

such as

limestone

, where what was previously atmospheric carbon can remain fixed for geological timescales.

Plants can grow as much as 50 percent faster in concentrations of 1,000 ppm CO2 when compared with ambient conditions, though this assumes no change in climate and no limitation on other nutrients.

[120]

Elevated CO2 levels cause increased growth reflected in the harvestable yield of crops, with wheat, rice and soybean all showing increases in yield of 12–14% under elevated CO2 in FACE experiments.

[121]

[122]

Increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations result in fewer stomata developing on plants

[123]

which leads to reduced water usage and increased

water-use efficiency

.

[124]

Studies using

FACE

have shown that CO2 enrichment leads to decreased concentrations of micronutrients in crop plants.

[125]

This may have knock-on effects on other parts of

ecosystems

as herbivores will need to eat more food to gain the same amount of protein.

[126]

The concentration of secondary

metabolites

such as phenylpropanoids and flavonoids can also be altered in plants exposed to high concentrations of CO2.

[127]

[128]

Plants also emit CO2 during respiration, and so the majority of plants and algae, which use

C3 photosynthesis

, are only net absorbers during the day. Though a growing forest will absorb many tons of CO2 each year, a mature forest will produce as much CO2 from respiration and decomposition of dead specimens (e.g., fallen branches) as is used in photosynthesis in growing plants.

[129]

Contrary to the long-standing view that they are carbon neutral, mature forests can continue to accumulate carbon

[130]

and remain valuable

carbon sinks

, helping to maintain the carbon balance of Earth’s atmosphere. Additionally, and crucially to life on earth, photosynthesis by phytoplankton consumes dissolved CO2 in the upper ocean and thereby promotes the absorption of CO2 from the atmosphere.

[131]

Toxicity

Main symptoms of carbon dioxide toxicity, by increasing

volume percent

in air.

[132]

Carbon dioxide content in fresh air (averaged between sea-level and 10 kPa level, i.e., about 30 km (19 mi) altitude) varies between 0.036% (360 ppm) and 0.041% (412 ppm), depending on the location.

[133]

[

clarification needed

]

CO2 is an

asphyxiant gas

and not classified as toxic or harmful in accordance with

Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals standards

of

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

by using the

OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals

. In concentrations up to 1% (10,000 ppm), it will make some people feel drowsy and give the lungs a stuffy feeling.

[132]

Concentrations of 7% to 10% (70,000 to 100,000 ppm) may cause suffocation, even in the presence of sufficient oxygen, manifesting as dizziness, headache, visual and hearing dysfunction, and unconsciousness within a few minutes to an hour.

[134]

The physiological effects of acute carbon dioxide exposure are grouped together under the term

hypercapnia

, a subset of

asphyxiation

.

Because it is heavier than air, in locations where the gas seeps from the ground (due to sub-surface volcanic or geothermal activity) in relatively high concentrations, without the dispersing effects of wind, it can collect in sheltered/pocketed locations below average ground level, causing animals located therein to be suffocated. Carrion feeders attracted to the carcasses are then also killed. Children have been killed in the same way near the city of

Goma

by CO2 emissions from the nearby volcano

Mount Nyiragongo

.

[135]

The

Swahili

term for this phenomenon is ‘

mazuku

‘.

Rising levels of CO2 threatened the

Apollo 13

astronauts who had to adapt cartridges from the command module to supply the

carbon dioxide scrubber

in the

Lunar Module

, which they used as a lifeboat.

Adaptation to increased concentrations of CO2 occurs in humans, including

modified breathing

and kidney bicarbonate production, in order to balance the effects of blood acidification (

acidosis

). Several studies suggested that 2.0 percent inspired concentrations could be used for closed air spaces (e.g. a

submarine

) since the adaptation is physiological and reversible, as deterioration in performance or in normal physical activity does not happen at this level of exposure for five days.

[136]

[137]

Yet, other studies show a decrease in cognitive function even at much lower levels.

[138]

[139]

Also, with ongoing respiratory acidosis, adaptation or

compensatory mechanisms will be unable to reverse such condition

.

Below 1%

There are few studies of the health effects of long-term continuous CO2 exposure on humans and animals at levels below 1%. Occupational CO2 exposure limits have been set in the United States at 0.5% (5000 ppm) for an eight-hour period.

[140]

At this CO2 concentration,

International Space Station

crew experienced headaches, lethargy, mental slowness, emotional irritation, and sleep disruption.

[141]

Studies in animals at 0.5% CO2 have demonstrated kidney calcification and bone loss after eight weeks of exposure.

[142]

A study of humans exposed in 2.5 hour sessions demonstrated significant negative effects on cognitive abilities at concentrations as low as 0.1% (1000 ppm) CO2 likely due to CO2 induced increases in cerebral blood flow.

[138]

Another study observed a decline in basic activity level and information usage at 1000 ppm, when compared to 500 ppm.

[139]

However a review of the literature found that most studies on the phenomenon of carbon dioxide induced cognitive impairment to have a small effect on high-level decision making and most of the studies were confounded by inadequate study designs, environmental comfort, uncertainties in exposure doses and differing cognitive assessments used.

[143]

Similarly a study on the effects of the concentration of CO2 in motorcycle helmets has been criticized for having dubious methodology in not noting the self-reports of motorcycle riders and taking measurements using mannequins. Further when normal motorcycle conditions were achieved (such as highway or city speeds) or the visor was raised the concentration of CO2 declined to safe levels (0.2%).

[144]

[145]

Ventilation

CO2 concentration meter

using a

nondispersive infrared sensor

Poor ventilation is one of the main causes of excessive CO2 concentrations in closed spaces. Carbon dioxide differential above outdoor concentrations at steady state conditions (when the occupancy and ventilation system operation are sufficiently long that CO2 concentration has stabilized) are sometimes used to estimate ventilation rates per person.[

citation needed

] Higher CO2 concentrations are associated with occupant health, comfort and performance degradation.

[146]

[147]

ASHRAE

Standard 62.1–2007 ventilation rates may result in indoor concentrations up to 2,100 ppm above ambient outdoor conditions. Thus if the outdoor concentration is 400 ppm, indoor concentrations may reach 2,500 ppm with ventilation rates that meet this industry consensus standard. Concentrations in poorly ventilated spaces can be found even higher than this (range of 3,000 or 4,000 ppm).

Miners, who are particularly vulnerable to gas exposure due to insufficient ventilation, referred to mixtures of carbon dioxide and nitrogen as “

blackdamp

,” “choke damp” or “stythe.” Before more effective technologies were developed,

miners

would frequently monitor for dangerous levels of blackdamp and other gases in mine shafts by bringing a caged

canary

with them as they worked. The canary is more sensitive to asphyxiant gases than humans, and as it became unconscious would stop singing and fall off its perch. The

Davy lamp

could also detect high levels of blackdamp (which sinks, and collects near the floor) by burning less brightly, while

methane

, another suffocating gas and explosion risk, would make the lamp burn more brightly.

In February 2020, three people died from suffocation at a party in Moscow when dry ice (frozen CO2) was added to a swimming pool to cool it down.

[148]

A similar accident occurred in 2018 when a woman died from CO2 fumes emanating from the large amount of dry ice she was transporting in her car.

[149]

Human physiology

Content

Reference ranges

or averages for

partial pressures of carbon dioxide

(abbreviated pCO2)

Blood compartment (

kPa

)

(

mm Hg

)

Venous

blood carbon dioxide

5.5–6.8 41–51

[150]

Alveolar

pulmonary
gas pressures

4.8 36

Arterial blood carbon dioxide

4.7–6.0 35–45

[150]

The body produces approximately 2.3 pounds (1.0 kg) of carbon dioxide per day per person,

[151]

containing 0.63 pounds (290 g) of carbon. In humans, this carbon dioxide is carried through the

venous system

and is breathed out through the lungs, resulting in lower concentrations in the

arteries

. The carbon dioxide content of the blood is often given as the

partial pressure

, which is the pressure which carbon dioxide would have had if it alone occupied the volume.

[152]

In humans, the blood carbon dioxide contents is shown in the adjacent table.

Transport in the blood

CO2 is carried in blood in three different ways. (The exact percentages vary depending whether it is arterial or venous blood).

  • Most of it (about 70% to 80%) is converted to

    bicarbonate

    ions HCO
    3
    by the enzyme

    carbonic anhydrase

    in the red blood cells,

    [153]

    by the reaction CO2 + H
    2
    O
    H
    2
    CO
    3
    H+
    + HCO
    3
    .

  • 5–10% is dissolved in the

    plasma

    [153]

  • 5–10% is bound to

    hemoglobin

    as

    carbamino

    compounds

    [153]

Hemoglobin

, the main oxygen-carrying molecule in

red blood cells

, carries both oxygen and carbon dioxide. However, the CO2 bound to hemoglobin does not bind to the same site as oxygen. Instead, it combines with the N-terminal groups on the four globin chains. However, because of

allosteric

effects on the hemoglobin molecule, the binding of CO2 decreases the amount of oxygen that is bound for a given partial pressure of oxygen. This is known as the

Haldane Effect

, and is important in the transport of carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs. Conversely, a rise in the partial pressure of CO2 or a lower pH will cause offloading of oxygen from hemoglobin, which is known as the

Bohr effect

.

Regulation of respiration

Carbon dioxide is one of the mediators of local

autoregulation

of blood supply. If its concentration is high, the

capillaries

expand to allow a greater blood flow to that tissue.

Bicarbonate ions are crucial for regulating blood pH. A person’s breathing rate influences the level of CO2 in their blood. Breathing that is too slow or shallow causes

respiratory acidosis

, while breathing that is too rapid leads to

hyperventilation

, which can cause

respiratory alkalosis

.

Although the body requires oxygen for metabolism, low oxygen levels normally do not stimulate breathing. Rather, breathing is stimulated by higher carbon dioxide levels. As a result, breathing low-pressure air or a gas mixture with no oxygen at all (such as pure nitrogen) can lead to loss of consciousness without ever experiencing

air hunger

. This is especially perilous for high-altitude fighter pilots. It is also why flight attendants instruct passengers, in case of loss of cabin pressure, to apply the

oxygen mask

to themselves first before helping others; otherwise, one risks losing consciousness.

[153]

The respiratory centers try to maintain an arterial CO2 pressure of 40 mm Hg. With intentional hyperventilation, the CO2 content of arterial blood may be lowered to 10–20 mm Hg (the oxygen content of the blood is little affected), and the respiratory drive is diminished. This is why one can hold one’s breath longer after hyperventilating than without hyperventilating. This carries the risk that unconsciousness may result before the need to breathe becomes overwhelming, which is why hyperventilation is particularly dangerous before free diving.

See also

  • Arterial blood gas

  • Bosch reaction

  • Bottled gas

     – Substances which are gaseous at standard temperature and pressure and have been compressed and stored in gas cylinders

  • Carbon dioxide removal

     – Removal of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (from the atmosphere)

  • Carbon dioxide sensor

  • Carbon sequestration

     – Capture and long-term storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide

  • Cave of Dogs

     – Cave near Naples, Italy

  • Emission standards

  • Indoor air quality

     – Air quality within and around buildings and structures

  • Kaya identity

     – Identity regarding anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions

  • Lake Kivu

     – Meromictic lake in the East African Rift valley

  • List of least carbon efficient power stations

  • List of countries by carbon dioxide emissions

  • Meromictic lake

     – Permanently stratified lake with layers of water that do not intermix

  • pCO2

     – Partial pressure of carbon dioxide, often used in reference to blood

  • Gilbert Plass

     – Canadian physicist (early work on CO2 and climate change)

  • Sabatier reaction

     – Methanation process of carbon dioxide with hydrogen

  • NASA’s

    Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2

  • Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite

     – Earth observation satellite

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Further reading

  • Seppänen, O.A.; Fisk, W.J.; Mendell, M.J. (December 1999).

    “Association of Ventilation Rates and CO2 Concentrations with Health and Other Responses in Commercial and Institutional Buildings”

    (PDF). Indoor Air. 9 (4): 226–252.

    doi

    :

    10.1111/j.1600-0668.1999.00003.x

    .

    PMID

     

    10649857

    . Archived from

    the original

    (PDF) on 27 December 2016.

  • Shendell, D.G.; Prill, R.; Fisk, W.J.; Apte, M.G.; Blake, D.; Faulkner, D. (October 2004).

    “Associations between classroom CO2 concentrations and student attendance in Washington and Idaho”

    (PDF). Indoor Air. 14 (5): 333–341.

    doi

    :

    10.1111/j.1600-0668.2004.00251.x

    .

    hdl

    :

    2376/5954

    .

    PMID

     

    15330793

    . Archived from

    the original

    (PDF) on 27 December 2016.

  • Soentgen, Jens (February 2014).

    “Hot air: The science and politics of CO2

    . Global Environment. 7 (1): 134–171.

    doi

    :

    10.3197/197337314X13927191904925

    .

  • Good plant design and operation for onshore carbon capture installations and onshore pipelines: a recommended practice guidance document

    . Global CCS Institute. Energy Institute and Global Carbon Capture and Storage Institute. 1 September 2010. Archived from

    the original

    on 7 November 2018. Retrieved 2 January 2018. This new title is an essential guide for engineers, managers, procurement specialists and designers working on global carbon capture and storage projects.

External links

  • International Chemical Safety Card 0021

  • Current global map of carbon dioxide concentration

  • [1]

    by Amerigas.

  • CDC – NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards – Carbon Dioxide

  • CO2 Carbon Dioxide Properties, Uses, Applications

  • Dry Ice information

  • Trends in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

    (NOAA)

  • “A War Gas That Saves Lives”

    .

    Popular Science

    , June 1942, pp. 53–57.

  • Reactions, Thermochemistry, Uses, and Function of Carbon Dioxide

  • Carbon Dioxide – Part One

    and

    Carbon Dioxide – Part Two

    at

    The Periodic Table of Videos

    (University of Nottingham)

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