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Lotus 1-2-3

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Spreadsheet software

Lotus 1-2-3

Lotus 1-2-3 9.8 icon.png

Lotus-123-3.0-dos.png

Lotus 1-2-3 on MS-DOS

Developer(s)

Lotus Software

Initial release 26 January 1983; 38 years ago (1983-01-26)

Final release

9.8.2 / 2002; 19 years ago (2002)
Written in

x86 assembly language

,

C

Operating system

DOS

,

Windows

,

OS/2

,

classic Mac OS

,

MVS

,

VM/CMS

,

OpenVMS

,

Unix

Type

Spreadsheet

License

Proprietary

Website

archive.today/JPPV

 

Edit this on Wikidata

Lotus 1-2-3 is a discontinued

spreadsheet

program from

Lotus Software

(later part of

IBM

). It was the first

killer application

of the

IBM PC

, was hugely popular in the 1980s, and significantly contributed to the success of

IBM PC-compatibles

.

[1]

The first spreadsheet,

VisiCalc

, had helped launch the

Apple II

as one of the earliest personal computers in business use. With IBM’s entry into the market, VisiCalc was slow to respond, and when they did, they launched what was essentially a straight port of their existing system despite the greatly expanded hardware capabilities. Lotus’s solution was marketed as a three-in-one integrated solution: it handled spreadsheet calculations,

database

functionality, and graphical charts, hence the name “1-2-3”, though how much database capability the product actually had, was debatable, given the sparse memory left over after launching 1-2-3. It quickly overtook VisiCalc, as well as

Multiplan

and

SuperCalc

, the two VisiCalc competitors.

1-2-3 was the spreadsheet standard throughout the 1980s and into the 1990s, part of an unofficial set of three stand-alone office automation products that included

dBase

and

WordPerfect

, to build a complete business platform. With the acceptance of

Windows 3.0

, the market for desktop software grew even more. None of the major spreadsheet developers had seriously considered the

graphical user interface

(GUI) to supplement their

DOS

offerings, and so they responded slowly to

Microsoft

‘s own GUI-based products

Excel

and

Word

. Lotus was surpassed by Microsoft in the early 1990s, and never recovered.

IBM

purchased Lotus in 1995, and continued to sell Lotus offerings, only officially ending sales in 2013.

[2]

History[

edit

]

VisiCalc[

edit

]

VisiCalc

was launched in 1979 on the

Apple II

and immediately became a best-seller. Compared to earlier programs, VisiCalc allowed one to easily construct free-form calculation systems for practically any purpose, the limitations being primarily memory and speed related. The application was so compelling that there were numerous stories of people buying Apple II machines to run the program

[3]

(see article

Killer application

). VisiCalc’s runaway success on the Apple led to direct

bug compatible

ports to other platforms, including the

Atari 8-bit family

,

Commodore PET

and many others. This included the

IBM PC

when it launched in 1981, where it quickly became another best-seller, with an estimated 300,000 sales in the first six months on the market.[

citation needed

]

There were well known problems with VisiCalc, and several competitors appeared to address some of these issues. One early example was 1980’s

SuperCalc

, which solved the problem of

circular references

, while a slightly later example was

Microsoft

Multiplan

from 1981, which offered larger sheets and other improvements. In spite of these, and others, VisiCalc continued to outsell them all.[

citation needed

]

Beginnings[

edit

]

Lotus 1-2-3 Release 2.3 for DOS User’s Guide; the Functions and Macros Guide is next to it.

The Lotus Development Corporation was founded by

Mitchell Kapor

, a friend of the developers of

VisiCalc

. 1-2-3 was originally written by

Jonathan Sachs

, who had written two spreadsheet programs previously while working at

Concentric Data Systems

, Inc.

[4]

[5]

To aid its growth both in the UK and possibly elsewhere, Lotus 1-2-3 became the very first computer software to use television consumer advertising.

[6]

Kapor was primarily a marketing guru. His ability to develop his product to appeal to non-technical users was one secret to its rapid success. Unlike far too many technologists, Kapor relied on focus group feedback to make his user instructions more user-friendly. One example: the instructions that came with the floppy disc read: “Remove the protective cover and insert disc into computer.” A few focus groups participant’s tried to rip-off the stiff plastic envelope of disc carrier! Kaor’s recognition that techno-speak instructions needed to be translated to normative English was a strong contributor to the product’s popularity outide the technologists’ users.

Lotus 1-2-3 was released on 26 January 1983, and immediately overtook Visicalc in sales. Unlike Microsoft

Multiplan

, it stayed very close to the model of VisiCalc, including the “A1” letter and number cell notation, and slash-menu structure. It was cleanly programmed, relatively bug-free, gained speed from being written completely in

x86

assembly language

(this remained the case for all DOS versions until 3.0, when Lotus switched to

C

[7]

) and wrote directly to video memory rather than use the slow DOS and/or BIOS text output functions.

[8]

[9]

Among other novelties that Lotus introduced was a graph maker that could display several forms of graphs (including pie charts, bar graphics, or line charts) but required the user to have a graphics card. At this early stage, the only video boards available for the PC were IBM’s

Color/Graphics Adapter

and

Monochrome Display and Printer Adapter

, the latter not supporting any graphics. However, because the two video boards used different RAM and port addresses, both could be installed in the same machine and so Lotus took advantage of this by supporting a “split” screen mode whereby the user could display the worksheet portion of 1-2-3 on the sharper monochrome video and the graphics on the CGA display.

The initial release of 1-2-3 supported only three video setups:

CGA

,

MDA

(in which case the graph maker was not available) or dual-monitor mode. However, a few months later support was added for Hercules Computer Technology’s

Hercules Graphics Adapter

which was a clone of the MDA that allowed bitmap mode. The ability to have high-resolution text and graphics capabilities (at the expense of color) proved extremely popular and Lotus 1-2-3 is credited with popularizing the Hercules graphics card.

Lotus 1-2-3 Release 3.0 for MS-DOS

Subsequent releases of Lotus 1-2-3 supported more video standards as time went on, including EGA, AT&T/Olivetti, and VGA. Significantly, support for the PCjr/Tandy modes was never added and users of those machines were limited to CGA graphics.

The early versions of 1-2-3 also had a key disk copy protection. While the program was hard disk installable, the user had to insert the original floppy disk when starting 1-2-3 up. This protection scheme was easily cracked and a minor inconvenience for home users, but proved a serious nuisance in an office setting. Starting with Release 3.0, Lotus no longer used copy protection. However, it was then necessary to “initialize” the System disk with one’s name and company name so as to customize the copy of the program. Release 2.2 and higher had this requirement. This was an irreversible process unless one had made an exact copy of the original disk so as to be able to change names to transfer the program to someone else.

The reliance on the specific hardware of the IBM PC led to 1-2-3 being utilized as one of the two

stress test

applications, along with

Microsoft Flight Simulator

, for true 100% compatibility when

PC clones

appeared in the early 1980s.

[10]

[11]

[12]

[13]

[14]

[15]

[16]

1-2-3 required two disk drives and at least 192K of memory, which made it incompatible with the

IBM PCjr

; Lotus produced a version for the PCjr that was on two cartridges but otherwise identical.

[17]

By early 1984 the software was a

killer app

for the IBM PC and compatibles, while hurting sales of computers that could not run it. “They’re looking for 1-2-3. Boy, are they looking for 1-2-3!” InfoWorld wrote. Noting that computer purchasers did not want PC compatibility as much as compatibility with certain PC software, the magazine suggested “let’s tell it like it is. Let’s not say ‘PC compatible,’ or even ‘MS-DOS compatible.’ Instead, let’s say ‘1-2-3 compatible.'”

[18]

PC clones’ advertising did often prominently state that they were compatible with 1-2-3.

[17]

An Apple II software company promised that its spreadsheet had “the power of 1-2-3”.

[19]

Because spreadsheets use large amounts of memory, 1‐2‐3 helped popularize greater RAM capacities in PCs, and especially the advent of

expanded memory

, which allowed greater than 640k to be accessed.

Rivals[

edit

]

Lotus 1-2-3 inspired imitators, the first of which was Mosaic Software’s “The Twin”, written in the fall of 1985 largely in the

C language

,

[20]

followed by VP-Planner, which was backed by

Adam Osborne

.

[21]

These were able to not only read 1-2-3 files, but also execute many or most macro programs by incorporating the same command structure. Copyright law had first been understood to only cover the source code of a program. After the success of lawsuits which claimed that the very “

look and feel

” of a program were covered, Lotus sought to ban any program which had a compatible command and menu structure. Program commands had not been considered to be covered before, but the commands of 1-2-3 were embedded in the words of the menu displayed on the screen. 1-2-3 won its 3-year long court battle against Paperback Software International and Mosaic Software Inc. in 1990.

[22]

However, when it sued

Borland

over its

Quattro Pro

spreadsheet in

Lotus v. Borland

, a 6-year battle that ended at the Supreme Court in 1996, the final ruling appeared to support narrowing the applicability of copyright law to software; this is because the lower court’s decision that it was not a copyright violation to merely have a compatible command menu or language was upheld, but only via stalemate.

[23]

In 1995, the First Circuit found that command menus are an uncopyrightable “method of operation” under section 102(b) of the

Copyright Act

.

[24]

The 1-2-3 menu structure (example, slash File Erase) was itself an advanced version of single letter menus introduced in

VisiCalc

. When the case came before the Supreme Court, the justices would end up deadlocked 4-4. This meant that Borland had emerged victorious, but the extent to which copyright law would be applicable to computer software went unaddressed and undefined.

[25]

[23]

Decline[

edit

]

A Lotus 1-2-3 box, as seen in an exhibit at the Computer History Museum in 2008

Microsoft’s early spreadsheet Multiplan eventually gave way to

Excel

, which debuted on the Macintosh in 1985. It arrived on PCs with the release of Windows 2.x in 1987, but as Windows was not yet popular, it posed no serious threat to Lotus’s stranglehold on spreadsheet sales. However, Lotus suffered technical setbacks in this period. Version 3 of Lotus 1-2-3, fully converted from its original macro assembler to the more portable

C language

, was delayed by more than a year as the totally new 1-2-3 had to be made portable across platforms and fully compatible with existing macro sets and file formats. The inability to fit the larger code size of compiled C into lower-powered machines forced the company to split its spreadsheet offerings, with 1-2-3 release 3 only for higher-end machines, and a new version 2.2, based on the 2.01 assembler code base, available for PCs without extended memory. By the time these versions were released in 1989, Microsoft had eroded much of Lotus’s market share.

During the early 1990s, Windows grew in popularity, and along with it, Excel, which gradually displaced Lotus from its leading position. A planned total revamp of 1-2-3 for Windows fell apart, and all that the company could manage, was a Windows adaptation of their existing spreadsheet with no changes except using a graphical interface. Additionally, several versions of 1-2-3 had different features and slightly different interfaces.

1-2-3’s intended successor,

Lotus Symphony

, was Lotus’s entry into the anticipated “

integrated software

” market. It intended to expand the rudimentary all-in-one 1-2-3 into a fully-fledged spreadsheet, graph, database and word processor for DOS, but none of the integrated packages ever really succeeded. 1-2-3 migrated to the Windows platform, as part of

Lotus SmartSuite

.

IBM’s continued development and marketing of

Lotus SmartSuite

and

OS/2

during the 1990s placed it in direct competition with

Microsoft Office

and

Microsoft Windows

, respectively. As a result, Microsoft “punished the IBM PC Company with higher prices, a late license for

Windows 95

, and the withholding of technical and marketing support.”

[26]

Microsoft did not grant IBM the

OEM

rights for Windows 95 until 15 minutes prior to the release of Windows 95 on 24 August 1995. Because of this uncertainty, IBM machines were sold without Windows 95, while

Compaq

,

HP

, and other companies sold machines with Windows 95 from day one.

[27]

On 11 June 2013, IBM announced it would withdraw the Lotus brand: IBM Lotus 1-2-3 Millennium Edition V9.x, IBM Lotus SmartSuite 9.x V9.8.0, and Organizer V6.1.0. IBM stated, “Customers will no longer be able to receive support for these offerings after 30 September 2014. No service extensions will be offered. There will be no replacement programs.”

[28]

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User features[

edit

]

Charting on Lotus 1-2-3 Release 2.2 for DOS

Examples of Lotus 1-2-3 macros

The name “1-2-3” stemmed from the product’s integration of three main capabilities: along with its core spreadsheet functionality, 1-2-3 also offered integral charting/graphing and rudimentary database operations.

Data features included sorting data in any defined rectangle, by order of information in one or two columns in the rectangular area. Justifying text in a range into paragraphs allowed it to be used as a primitive word processor.

It had keyboard-driven pop-up menus as well as one-key commands, making it fast to operate. It was also user-friendly, introducing an early instance of

context-sensitive help

accessed by the F1 key.

Macros

in version one and add-ins (introduced in version 2.0) contributed much to 1-2-3’s popularity, allowing dozens of outside vendors to sell macro packages and add-ins ranging from dedicated financial worksheets like

F9

to full-fledged

word processors

. In the single-tasking

MS-DOS

, 1-2-3 was sometimes used as a complete office suite. All major graphics standards were supported; initially CGA and Hercules, and later EGA, AT&T, and VGA. Early versions used the

filename extension

“WKS”.

[29]

In version 2.0, the extension changed first to “WK1”,

[30]

then “WK2”.

[31]

This later became “WK3” for version 3.0

[32]

and “WK4” for version 4.0.

[33]

Version 2 introduced macros with syntax and commands similar in complexity to an advanced

BASIC

interpreter, as well as string variable expressions. Later versions supported multiple worksheets and were written in

C

. The charting/graphing routines were written in

Forth

by

Jeremy Sagan

(son of

Carl Sagan

) and the printing routines by Paul Funk (founder of

Funk Software

).[

citation needed

]

PC version history[

edit

]

DOS[

edit

]

Real Mode (8088+)[

edit

]

Lotus 1-2-3 R2.2J Japanese version in action

These editions of 1-2-3 for DOS were primarily written in

x86 assembly language

.

  • Release 1 was the first release for DOS-based PCs. Introduced in January 1983.

    [34]

  • Release 1A in April 1983

    [34]

    [35]

    Officially supported

    ASCII

    , unofficially supported the IBM extended character set (but not LICS).

    [36]

    [37]

  • Release 2 brought add-in support, better memory management and

    expanded memory

    support, supported

    x87 math coprocessors

    , and introduced support for the

    Lotus International Character Set

    (LICS).

    [37]

    [36]

    [38]

    [39]

    Introduced in September 1985.

    [34]

    [35]

    [40]

    The Japanese version Lotus 1-2-3 Release 2J for

    NEC PC-98

    computers was released on 1986-09-05.

    [41]

    [42]

  • Release 2.01 in July 1986.

    [34]

    Introduced an option to switch between LICS and the IBM extended character set.

    [37]

    [38]

  • The Japanese version Lotus 1-2-3 Release 2.1J for NEC PC-98 computers was released in October 1987.

    [43]

    A version Lotus 1-2-3 Release 2.1J+ followed in February 1989.

    [44]

  • Release 2.2 brought improved speed, automated macro tools, and presentation-quality graphics. Introduced in 1989.

    [45]

    The Japanese version Lotus 1-2-3 Release 2.2J was released in February 1990.

    [46]

  • Release 2.3 brought

    WYSIWYG

    editing to the 2.x line. Introduced in 1991.

    [47]

    The Japanese version Lotus 1-2-3 Release 2.3J was released in September 1991.

    [48]

  • Release 2.4 added icons and additional tools, and was the last release supporting 2D (only) spreadsheets. Introduced in 1992.

    [49]

    [50]

    The Japanese version Lotus 1-2-3 Release 2.4J was released in September 1993.

    [51]

  • In July 1995, Lotus released Lotus 1-2-3 Release 2.5J for DOS.

    [52]

Protected Mode (80286+)[

edit

]

These editions of 1-2-3 for DOS were primarily written in

C

.

  • Release 3 introduced the concept of 3D spreadsheets, utilized

    extended memory

    , supported having multiple files open simultaneously, and required an 80286-based PC or higher. It also introduced support for the

    Lotus Multi-Byte Character Set

    (LMBCS).

    [53]

    [40]

    Introduced in March 1989.

    [35]

    [45]

    [53]

    [34]

  • Releases 3.1 and 3.1+

    [50]

    added WYSIWYG capabilities, the ability to swap to disk allowing for larger files (up to 64 MB), and could be run as a DOS program under

    Windows 3.0

    and OS/2. Introduced in 1990.

    [54]

  • Release 3.4 added icons, improved performance, and enhanced graph capabilities, making it functionally similar to Release 2.4. Introduced in 1992.

    [55]

  • Lotus 1-2-3 for Home, 1992
  • Release 4 was the last release for DOS. More an upgrade to Release 3.4 than in line with Release 3 for Windows, it contains an improved interface and new features, including Version Manager, a spell checker, context-sensitive help, and cell comments. Introduced in May 1994.

    [56]

    [34]

OS/2[

edit

]

  • Lotus 1-2-3/G Release 1. OS/2 text mode application introduced support for the

    Lotus Multi-Byte Character Set

    (LMBCS) together with the Release 3.0 for DOS in summer 1989.

    [53]

    [34]

  • Release 1.1. Introduced in 1991.

    [57]

  • Release 2. Introduced in 1992.

    [58]

  • Release 2.1. Introduced in 1994.

    [58]

Windows[

edit

]

Win16 (Windows 3.x)[

edit

]

  • Lotus 1-2-3/W Release 1 was the first release for Windows, requiring

    Windows 3.0

    or higher, was 16-bit, and was functionally equivalent to Release 3.x for DOS. Introduced in 1991.

    [35]

    [34]

    The Japanese version Lotus 1-2-3/Windows R1.0J was released on 1991-11-15.

    [59]

  • The version Lotus 1-2-3/Windows R1.1J was released on 1992-6-2.

    [60]

  • Release 4 was an extensive improvement that added

    groupware

    capabilities, improved integration with

    Lotus Notes

    , advanced graphics, context-sensitive menus and icons, and in-cell editing. Introduced in June 1993.

    [61]

    [34]

    A Japanese Lotus 1-2-3/Windows Release 4J was released 1993-07-16.

    [62]

  • Release 5 added additional groupware capabilities, chart maps, and improved database access. This was the last 16-bit version for

    Windows 3.1x

    , and was available as part of SmartSuite 3.1, 4, and 4.5. Introduced in mid-1994.

    [63]

    [64]

    The Japanese version Lotus 1-2-3/Windows Release 5J was released on 1994-09-22.

Win32 (Windows 9x/NT)[

edit

]

  • The 97 Edition was the first 32-bit version, requiring

    Windows 95

    or

    Windows NT 4.0

    , and had a changed interface and support for LotusScript. Introduced in 1997.

    [35]

    The Japanese-language version Lotus 1-2-3 97J was released on 1997-04-11.

    [65]

  • The Japanese-language Lotus 1-2-3 98J was released on 1998-06-05,

    [66]

    followed by Lotus 1-2-3 2000J on 1999-07-02, and by Lotus 1-2-3 2001J on 2001-07-27.

  • The Millennium Edition (version 9.8) contained new functions, improved Y2K support, Internet support, and better Excel compatibility. This is the last version of 1-2-3 for any platform, and has received maintenance releases through Fixpack 2. Introduced in 2002.

    [35]

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Other operating systems[

edit

]

Hewlett Packard HP 95 LX pocket PC with Lotus 1-2-3 built into ROM

  • DeskMate

     – Introduced in 1989, “Lotus Spreadsheet for DeskMate”, which was not officially called “1-2-3”, supported 1-2-3 version 2.x files, and used windows, on-screen symbols, pull-down menus, dialog boxes and other graphical tools, similar to Microsoft Windows. However, it did not support add-ins, macros, or expanded memory.

    [45]

  • Unix

     – A single version for

    Unix System V

    /386 was released in 1990. It was certified for SCO

    Xenix

    2.3 and

    SCO Unix

    3.2.0, but also expected to work on AT&T’s plain System V and on ISC’s

    386/ix

    .

    [67]

  • SunOS / Solaris – At least three releases for SPARC-based systems were published. Release 1.1 supported both

    SunView

    and the

    OpenWindows

    /

    OPEN LOOK

    windowing systems. It also featured real-time update support. Introduced in 1991.

    [68]

    Release 1.2 supported “Classic” in xterm, “Classic” in X Window, OPEN LOOK, and

    OSF/Motif

    .

    [69]

  • OpenVMS

     – A character cell terminal version of Lotus 1-2-3 was available on OpenVMS.

    [70]

  • HP MS-DOS palmtop PCs – A joint collaboration between

    Hewlett Packard

    and Lotus, the

    HP 95LX

    ,

    HP 100LX

    ,

    HP 200LX

    and

    HP OmniGo 700LX

    (1991–1994) had ports of Lotus 1-2-3 R2.2 and R2.4 embedded in ROM.

  • Apple Macintosh

     – Lotus’s first truly

    WYSIWYG

    spreadsheet, taking full advantage of the

    Mac OS

    , had two releases: Release 1.0 debuted in 1991

    [71]

    and Release 1.1 was introduced the following year.

    [72]

  • In 1987, Lotus announced a mainframe version of Lotus 1-2-3, Lotus 1-2-3/M; 1-2-3/M was designed for use with

    IBM 3270

    terminals and ran under both

    VM/CMS

    and

    MVS

    operating systems.

    [73]

    [74]

    [75]

    [76]

    Lotus 1-2-3/M was jointly developed by IBM and Lotus, and exclusively sold by IBM.

    [73]

    [74]

    [77]

    [78]

    [79]

Reception[

edit

]

After previewing 1-2-3 on the IBM PC in 1982,

BYTE

called it “modestly revolutionary” for elegantly combining spreadsheet, database, and graphing functions. It praised the application’s speed and ease of use, stating that with the built-in help screens and tutorial, “1-2-3 is one of the few pieces of software that can literally be used by anybody. You can buy 1-2-3 and [an IBM PC] and be running the two together the same day”.

[80]

PC Magazine

in 1983 called 1-2-3 “a powerful and impressive program … as a spreadsheet, it’s excellent”, and attributed its very fast performance to being written in

assembly language

.

[81]

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See also[

edit

]

  • As-Easy-As

  • Comparison of office suites

  • Compose key sequence

  • Reverse Polish Notation

    (RPN in formulas)

  • Microsoft Works

References[

edit

]

  1. ^

    Darrow, Barbara (1 February 2002),

    “Whatever Happened To Lotus 1-2-3?”

    , CRN, archived from

    the original

    on 9 January 2009, retrieved 31 October 2007.

  2. ^

    Power, D. J. (30 August 2004).

    “A Brief History of Spreadsheets”

    . DSSResources.com. 3 (6).

  3. ^

    McMullen, Barbara E.; McMullen, John F. (21 February 1984).

    “Apple Charts the Course for IBM”

    .

    PC Magazine

    . 3 (3): 122–129. Retrieved 11 January 2015.

  4. ^

    “The History of Notes and Domino”,

    Developer Works

    ,

    IBM

    , 14 November 2007, retrieved 20 December 2005

  5. ^

    Campbell-Kelly, Martin (7 May 2004),

    Oral history interview with Jonathan Sachs

    ,

    Charles Babbage Institute

    , University of Minnesota.

  6. ^

    ComputerWorld

    “,

    Micro Software TV Ads Play to Mixed Review

    ,

    ComputerWorld

    , 26 November 1984, p. 24

  7. ^

    Lewis, Peter H. (13 March 1988).

    “The Executive computer; Lotus 1-2-3 Faces Up to the Upstarts”

    .

    The New York Times

    . Retrieved 14 October 2012. Release 3.0 is being written in the computer language known as

    C

    , to provide easy transportability among PCs, Macs and mainframes.

  8. ^

    Techopedia.

    “Lotus 1-2-3”

    . Retrieved 12 July 2019.

  9. ^

    Perconal Computer Museum.

    “Lotus 1-2-3 Release 2.4”

    . Archived from

    the original

    on 13 June 2018. Retrieved 12 July 2019.

  10. ^

    Springer, P. Gregory (3 June 1985).

    “Tandy’s Magnificent Concession”

    .

    InfoWorld

    . p. 72. Retrieved 19 July 2014.

  11. ^

    Lockwood, Russ (September 1985).

    “Zenith Z-151; choice of U.S. Air Force and Navy”

    .

    Creative Computing

    . p. 50. Retrieved 26 February 2013.

  12. ^

    Alsop, Stewart (31 January 1994).

    “A public Windows pane to make compatibility clearer”

    .

    InfoWorld

    . p. 102. Retrieved 28 February 2011.

  13. ^

    Dvorak, John C. (12 May 1986).

    “Springtime in Atlanta Beats Fall in Las Vegas”

    .

    InfoWorld

    . p. 66. Retrieved 28 February 2011.

  14. ^

    Satchell, Stephen (27 January 1986).

    “The Corona ATP Is Faster Than The IBM PC AT, But It Has Flaws”

    .

    InfoWorld

    . pp. 47, 50. Retrieved 28 February 2011.

  15. ^

    Mace, Scott; Sorensen, Karen (5 May 1986).

    “Amiga, Atari Ready PC Emulators”

    .

    InfoWorld

    . p. 5. Retrieved 28 February 2011.

  16. ^

    Satchell, Stephen (14 January 1985).

    “AT&T 6300 Personal Computer”

    .

    InfoWorld

    . pp. 49, 53–54. Retrieved 28 February 2011.

  17. ^

    a

    b

    Trivette, Donald B. (April 1985).

    “Lotus 1-2-3 For IBM PCjr”

    .

    Compute!

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  18. ^

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External links[

edit

]

  • Lotus

    (website),

    IBM

    , archived from

    the original

    on 1 April 2002.

  • “Review of Lotus 123 version 1.0”

    ,

    Byte magazine

    , December 1982.

  • KV Lotus

    (free viewer for Lotus SmartSuite products),

    IBM

    [

    permanent dead link

    ].

  • “Lotus 1-2-3”,

    File Format Documentation

    , Schnarff, archived from

    the original

    on 3 March 2010, retrieved 12 October 2006.

  • Lotus 1-2-3 V.1.00 for Mac OS

    (screenshots), Germany: Knubbel Mac.

  • Lotus SmartSuite for Windows 9.8 and fix packs

    (fix list),

    IBM

    , archived from

    the original

    on 16 October 2012, retrieved 16 September 2012.

  • Lotus SmartSuite Support Group

    .

  • Getting Lotus 123 to work in Windows 7

    .

  • dBase, LLC Announces support for Paradox® for DOS Ecosystem!

    .

  • Getting Lotus 123 to work in Windows 10

    .

Retrieved from “

https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lotus_1-2-3&oldid=1027517179

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